Current journal

West-East №13
Date publication on the site:
2021-02-04 08:59:15
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The concepts of “memory” and “oblivion” in the scientific tools of a scientist
Authors: G. V. Rokina;
Долгие дискуссии в российской исторической науке о том, что концепции «исторической памяти» не соответствуют современному уровню научных знаний, а само понятие относится к категории «бесполезных», завершились тем, то в последнее десятилетие конструкт «историческая память» оказался необыкновенно привлекательным не только для так называемых идеологов «движений за память», но и для академических ученых. Спектр работ по исторической памяти сегодня достаточно широк и, можно сказать, «вошел в моду». Мемориальный бум в современных социальных науках, а также в исторической науке, которая в своих междисциплинарных исследованиях использует арсенал (инструментарий) наук общест¬венных, дает возможность переосмыслить многие исторические явления и процессы, «для которых раньше не было адекватного языка и которые не привлекали к себе остро заинтересованного внимание общественности» (1, с. 12). Изучая содержание «исторической памяти», историки активно используют методы социальной и культурной антропологии. Понятие «политика памяти» стало востребованным у историков, которые переключились с темы «идеологические предпосылки и т. п.» на пропагандистские образы и символы; с политической истории – на культурную политику.
The Battle of Stalingrad in the historical memory of the Austrians
Authors: Iskra Schwarcz;
The article discusses various approaches to the concept of "historical memory" (M. Halbwachs, A. Assmann). Analyzing the examples given by A. Assmann, the author points out that the study of cultural memory, the politics of memory, historical memory and the discourse about memory itself have become one of the most dynamically developing research fields in recent years. The author of the article aims to analyze what kind of discourse exists in Austria about the participation of the Austrians in World War II, and what is characteristic for the memory of the Austrians about the Battle of Stalingrad. The author discusses with A. Assmann, who in her works argued that in Austria, compared to Germany, there were no critical sentiments until the 1980s. The article provides examples of writers Thomas Bernhard, Peter Handke, Peter Henisch and many others who sharply criticized Austrian society and the opportunism of Austrians, triggering a genuine cultural revolution in the 1970s and 1980s. Based on personal conversations and observations, the author of the article gives examples of the attitude of the Austrians to the events of the past, and also analyzes the historical facts and statistics of the participation of the Austrians in the Battle of Stalingrad. According to the author, the events near Stalingrad for the Austrians are the trauma of the defeated, the trauma of shame, and for some of them, the trauma of guilt. At the same time, the author draws attention to one very important mechanism of trauma (according to A. Assmann), according to which trauma, in contrast to heroic narrative, does not mobilize and does not consolidate a nation, but destroys its identity.
Memory as oblivion: Orthodoxy in Russia in the era of secularization
Authors: Yuliya S. Obidina;
The collapse of the Soviet Union marked the end of the era of state suppression of religion, contributing to a possible religious revival in Russia. Nevertheless, despite evidence of an increase in the level of identity of Russian Orthodox Christians, the debate over whether post-Soviet Russia is an exception to secularization trends in other countries continues. The purpose of the article is to show whether Russia corresponds to the paradigm of secularization from the point of view of its classical understanding. For this purpose, the Russian Orthodox religiosity of the post-Soviet period was considered from the standpoint of the theory of memory. The novelty of the article lies in the application of a research approach to memory as oblivion, which made it possible to explain the peculiarity of Orthodox religiosity and its connection with the values of moral conservatism, historically associated with religion and the church in Russia. The method of research is the method of comparison, as well as the method of historical reconstruction, which makes it possible to identify the general and specific in the awareness of religious identity in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia. It is noted that the continued growth of Orthodox self-identification, the growth of church attendance is not entirely correct to consider from the point of view of the classical concept of secularization, since the process of secularization in Russia is subordinated not to the internal logic of the process, and not to the peculiarities of the religious policy of the Russian state, but to the peculiarities of the collective historical and cultural memory, which in this context acts as oblivion. It is concluded that the revival of Orthodoxy in Russia is a serious exception to the tendencies of secularization in Europe, not because of the peculiarities of the process of secularization or religious policy, but because of the peculiarities of the manifestation of historical memory.
Matica Slovenska in the memory of Slovaks
Authors: Daniela Kodajova;
The article examines the main stages of the existence of Matica Slovenska, opened in 1863 by a decree of the Austrian emperor and completed its activities in 1875, when a period of reaction began in Austria-Hungary. These 12 years of Matica's existence are still the central theme in the national history of Slovaks. The author draws attention to the significance of this period of Slovak history for the creation of national symbols, traditions of celebrations, and the formation of an enemy image. The founding fathers of Matica, according to the author of the article, created a new type of ceremonial events, which already in the 19th century acquired all the features of a national tradition. The research is based on a wide source base. The testimonies of contemporaries of that era who were directly involved in the activities of this Slovak cultural and educational society, as well as those who further contributed to the preservation of the special place of this organization in the historical memory of Slovaks, are presented. The article shows the “glorious” and “sorrowful” stories of Matica, which marked the triumph and trauma in the memory of Slovaks and played an important role in the formation of national identity. The study was carried out in line with the methodological approaches of historical memory, commemorative practice, and the history of Matica Slovenska is presented as an example of the formation of “places of memory” in the process of national identification of Slovaks. The author of the article concludes that symbolism in the history of Matica Slovenska played a more important role than the activities of this organization itself.
Moscow as one of the centers of the Czechs and Slovaks in Russia (late 19th – early 20th century)
Authors: Elena P. Serapionova;
Based on the study and analysis of published memoirs and correspondence, as well as materials from Russian, Czech and Slovak archives, an attempt is made to reconstruct the life of the Czechs and Slovaks in Moscow in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. The main source is the memoirs of the Czech Fyodor Kovarzhik, who lived in Russia for many years. Any historian will confirm that memoirs are a very subjective thing, and they must be treated very carefully, comparing them with other sources. Moreover, Kovarzhik's memoirs, published in the 1930s, caused a very controversial reaction of the Czech political establishment. Although the reviews claimed that the author often sinned by distorting the actual reality, the reason for the critical reviews of the book was clearly pro-Russian views of the author, who claimed that in pre-revolutionary Russia, the life of the Czechs and Slovaks, as a rule, developed successfully. This did not correspond to the official concept of Czechoslovakia's foreign policy. Russian czarism and Bolshevism were viewed equally negatively by the President of the Republic, T. G. Masaryk, and the entire ruling group of Grad, hoping for the evolution of the Bolshevik regime and trying to rely on the Russian “democratic forces” that they purposefully gathered and supported in Czechoslovakia as part of the “Russian action to help Russian emigration”. Kovarzhik was declared a right-wing, conservative, pro-czarist author. The book has not been reprinted, although it contains a lot of interesting details about the life of the Czechs and Slovaks in Russia and is worthy of translation into Russian. Separate chapters and passages of the book are devoted to the colony of the Czechs and Slovaks in Moscow.
The image of the Visegrad Group in Slovak scientific research
Authors: Viktor V. Nikitin;
The article analyzes and critically evaluates the approaches of Slovak researchers to the activities of four Visegrad countries, three of which until 1918 were part of Austria-Hungary. In the first part of this work, the author examines the assessments of Slovak researchers of the Slovak role in the Visegrad Group. On this basis, the author comes to the conclusion, that this regional community is presented as a platform for protecting Slovak interests in the European Union. At the same time, Slovak experts, as the author of the article claims, undoubtedly overestimate the real significance of this group for Western European politicians. The second part of the article examines the image of Visegrad cooperation in several directions: the study of initiatives during the chairmanships of certain countries, analysis of common approaches and differences, consideration of the impact of the migration crisis and raising the question of the prospects for institutionalizing cooperation. The readers may also get acquainted with the Slovak analysis of sectoral cooperation within the framework of Visegrad, especially in the field of defense and security, as well as in the energy sector. The author analyzes the Slovak approaches to the expanded Visegrad cooperation (Visegrad+) covering other regions, in particular the Western Balkans and the Eastern Partnership. In addition to the activities of the Visegrad Group analyzed in Slovak historiography, the article examines the documentary base on which the Slovak works are based. The author concludes that there is a whole array of Internet resources (in particular, documents of the Slovak government) that are currently not used by scientists. This makes it possible to further study and evaluate the activities of the Visegrad Four in more detail.
The problem of creating the Russian state in the history textbooks of the late 1930s – early 1950s
Authors: Nikita V. Tikhomirov;
The article examines the problem of representing the process of the formation of the Russian state in textbooks on the history of the USSR of the late 1930s – early 1950s. The aim of the work is to consider the features of the reflection of this process in textbooks on the history of the Stalin’s period; to identify the factors that determined the conclusions and assessments of histo-rians; to trace changes in approaches to solving key problems within the frame-work of this topic. Primary and secondary school textbooks and university textbooks in various editions were used as a key source. Also, when preparing the article, archival documents were involved, in particular, cases contained in the personal funds of the Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In addi-tion, published official documents, the works of I.V. Stalin, articles by major Russian historians of the period under review were used. School history textbooks serve as a highly informative source for studying the process of the formation of the Soviet mono-concept of Russian history in the late 1930s – early 1950s. The formation of a holistic set of theoretical ideas about the formation of the state of the Great Russians in the 15th–16th centuries was one of the most important problems in the creation of the Marxist concept of Russian history. A number of key provisions were predetermined by the instructions of I. V. Stalin. The creation of the centralization concept took place in line with the criticism of M.N. Pokrovsky’s historical concept, overcoming its fundamental theoretical and methodological provisions. Some theses proposed in the first editions of textbooks were later revised under the influence of both purely academic and political-ideological factors. The study of the stated problems contributes to a better understanding of the development of scientific thought in the USSR. An analysis of the principles and approaches to solving specific historiographic problems contributes to the enrichment of the arsenal of theoretical and methodological concepts of the modern researcher.
School textbook and historical memory: analysis of Russian educational literature on history in the XX century
Authors: Tatyana N. Ivanova;
The article deals with the problems of studying historical memory, which is subject to rapid changes in times of social upheaval. The structure of historical memory consists of historical images, myths, symbols, and cultural stereotypes that contribute to the self-identification of individuals and society. Memory and historical science actively interact with each other. Commemorative practices are a mechanism for forming historical memory. The state uses commemorative practices for political purposes. A school history textbook has a very effective influence on the formation of historical memory. The content of the textbook is primarily influenced by the state educational policy, the level of histo¬rical and pedagogical sciences, the socio-political situation, the author's scientific and ideological views, and other factors. The following parameters are selected as criteria for comparing educational publications: the initiator/customer of the text¬book; the degree of control/censorship of content; scientific concepts underlying the educational material; synchronization of the facts of world and national history; correlation of political, socio-economic and cultural-anthropolo¬gical history; metho¬dological techniques and pedagogical concepts underlying the textbook. The article highlights the following periods of development of Russian educational literature on history in the XX century: 1900–1917; 1918–1931; 1931–1958; 1959–1989; 1990–2000. Each period is characterized and the influence of educational literature on historical memory of a particular period is considered.
Czechoslovak Corps actions in post-Soviet history textbooks
Authors: Andrey V. Lyamzin;
The article examines the evolution of historical assessments of historians of the post-Soviet states. The analysis is carried out on the basis of a study of textbooks for schools and universities that were published in the 1990s and 2000s in Russia and the newly independent states (NIS) that arose after the collapse of the USSR. According to the author of the article, textbooks can be used to trace not only the current ideological attitudes prevailing in Russia and the NIS, but also the process of society's rethinking of the political views of the past. For the analysis, the author involved two groups of textbooks: books published in Russia and educational publications printed in the NIS of the post-Soviet space. The topic of the "White Czechs" and, in general, the activities of the Czechoslovak Corps in Soviet historiography and accordingly in Soviet history textbooks, was presented negatively, as a striking force of the counter-revolution. An analysis of post-Soviet history textbooks published in the near abroad, in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Belarus and Ukraine, showed that these states are characterized by priority to their own history, and they do not directly assess the actions of the Czechoslovak Corps during the Civil War. An exception is the 2005 Belarusian textbook, which contains assessments of the actions of the "White Czechs" on the side of the Entente and a detailed description of the actions of the Czechoslovak Corps. In the Ukrainian textbook on World History of 2003, the activities of the corps are assessed in an anti-Bolshevik vein. In textbooks published in Central Asia, Soviet terminology is largely preserved when assessing the actions of the Czechoslovak Corps. Most objectively, in the opinion of the author of the article, the events are described in the Kyrgyz textbook for higher education of 2009. The assessment of the actions of the Czechoslovak Corps has undergone a noticeable evolution in Russian textbooks of the 1990s–2000s, which the author shows in detail by analyzing specific examples from the texts of university and school textbooks. Concluding the analysis, the author of the article comes to the conclusion that the attitude towards facts has changed, and in each country they look at the events of the Civil War from the point of view of current national priorities, now this problem is paid attention only to the extent that it affected the territorial boundaries of the newly independent states.
Lost in centuries: how modern Russian schoolchildren study history
Authors: Valentina G. Sushentsova;
The article is devoted to the ways of the influence of the memorial policy of the modern Russian state on the learning process at the level of general education, as well as to the peculiarities of the legal regulation of the subject content of the school discipline “History”. The author analyzes the documents regulating the educational process, including the Constitution of the Russian Federation of 1993, the Federal Law “On education in the Russian Federation” no. 273-FZ dated December 29, 2012, Federal State Educational Standards of general education, the Model educational program of the basic and secondary general education. The article evaluates the improved Concept of teaching the school course “History of Russia” prepared by the Russian Historical Society. The article highlights such aspects of the problem as the regulatory and legal status of the Historical and Cultural Standard, the ratio of the study of Russian and World History in school, the content elements of Russian and World History in the Control and measuring materials of the Unified State Examination in History.
Daughters of freedom (comprehending the 140th anniversary of the first Russian women's organization to defend women's interests)
Authors: Irina M. Pushkareva; Nataliya L. Pushkareva;
The article summarizes the historical experience of the creation by Russian women in 1859–1860 of the first women’s organization in Russia to defend women's interests, it was the “Society for the Delivery of Cheap Apartments and Other Benefits to Needy Citizens of St. Petersburg” and includes this event in the history of the early Russian liberal women's movement. Comparing the particularities of the women's movement in Russia and Western European countries, the authors came to the conclusion that the historical result of the creation of the first women's organizations was the deployment of the political women's movement after 1905 and the granting of woman suffrage in June 1917 – that is, before the political revolution of the Bolsheviks.
Actualization of the Russian historiography of England at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War (to the publication of the text by S. I. Arkhangelsky “The role of Russian historians in the development of the history of England” (August 1941))
Authors: Andrey A. Kuznetsov; Olga V. Selivanova;
The article precedes the publication of a large text by the prominent Soviet historian S. I. Arkhangelsky. The text is a review of a personal study of the history of England in Russia in the second half of the 19th – first half of the 20th century. This review was written in August 1941. The Great Patriotic war had been going on for two months. The pretext for writing was the conclusion of the Soviet-British agreement on joint struggle with Nazi Germany. The text of S. I. Arkhangelsky proposed for publication was written for the “Historical Journal”. The review was not published for unknown reasons. The article reflects on the experience of studying the history of England and Britain from the 1870s to 1941. The author proves the thesis that a large scientific school for the study of English history, similar to the “Russian school” for the study of the past of France, was formed in Russia – the USSR. The “Russian school” of studying England was represented by M. M. Kovalevsky, P. G. Vinogradov, D. M. Petrushevsky, A. N. Savin, E. A. Kosminsky, S. I. Arkhangelsky and V. M. Lavrovsky. The text is also a reflection of S. I. Arkhangelsky on his role in understanding the history of England. The publication is based on the autographed manuscript of the article of 1941 “The role of Russian historians in the development of the history of England”. It is proved that S. I. Arkhangelsky returned to this article after 1943 to publish it under the title “Social history of England in monographs of Russian historians”. In this regard, he shortened the text. However, he later abandoned this decision. Probably in 1949, S. I. Arkhangelsky abandoned the idea of publishing the text and put it in his home archive.
Inter-Slavic ties in the research field of historians
Authors: Galina V. Rokina;
Inter-Slavic scientific, cultural and social contacts are traditionally in the center of attention of historians, politicians and public figures. This topic occu¬pies a special place in the activities of the International Commission of Historians of Russia and Slovakia, the purpose of which is to develop these contacts and preserve the traditions of scientific and cultural inter-Slavic cooperation. The article presents annotations of three monographic studies devoted to inter-Slavic contacts, as well as information about scientific conferences in which scientists-Slovakists and members of the Commission took part.