- West-East №9
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WORLD WAR I: PARTICIPANTS AND CONTEMPORARIES IN MINDS OF DESCENDANTS
Authors: Vera M. Novik ;
The article is devoted to the reconstruction of the war experience of the participants of World War I from Belarusian countryside whose memories are cherished naturally by their descendants. The author, a native of the Belarusian village Malaya Volya, collected memories of relatives and fellow villagers of World War I events for many years. Applying the method of oral history and military anthropology, the author recreated the atmosphere and mood during the stay of the villagers in the village Malaya Volya at the front, in the Austrian captivity and German occupation. An essential part of the narrative is to analyze the data of the local place names and origins of the village of nicknames, which became a kind of manifestation of historical memory. An essential part of the narration is to analyze data of local names and origin of rural nickname, which became a kind of manifestation of historical memory. There are memories of the German occupation of the village, the military campaigns of soldiers to revolutionary Moscow, relations between officers and soldiers in the Russian tsarist army. There is shown figuratively psychological state of the Belarusian peasant, whose moral principles have been violated by the war. There are shown house life and the daily life of the villagers in the trenches of war, in the Austrian captivity, during the occupation of the village by German troops. Fortunately, fate was kind to the people of the village Malaya Volya and participants of World War I, most of whom have returned home safe and sound.
IN THE TRENCHES AND IN CAPTIVITY: A SOLDIERS DIARY OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR (CONTINUED)
Authors: Aleksej N. Kudrjavcev ; Aleksandr V. Sokolov ;
This text is a continuation of the publication of the diary of a soldier of World War I, whose author was a senior non-commissioned officer of the 130th Infantry Kherson Regiment Nikolai Demidovich Mursatov, born in Vyatka province. A copy of the diary was given by a resident of the city of Yoshkar-Ola, in whose family archive this relic preserved. The first part of the diary described the events of November and December 1914, when its author was mobilized in the city of Vyatka, and got into the army in 130 Bessarabian Infantry Regiment (West – East, 2014, no. 7, pp. 136−152.). Notes describe the mobilization, military operations in the foothills of the Carpathians and the siege of Peremyshl, the soldiers' lives and the life of the first military autumn. The second part of the diary is devoted to military captivity, where Nikolai Mursatov got in December 1914. The first batch of numerous war prisoners during the World War I was captured during this time, during the battles in Poland on the Carpathian front. The text contains historical information about the mood in the Russian army, the life of war prisoners in the Austro-Hungarian captivity on the territory of modern Poland and Austria. During the capture and interrogation of the first Russian soldiers and officers, according to the author's diary, maintained dignity and did not disclose details. Communication with officers during interrogations took place in a mixture of Slavic languages. Initially, the attitude to the prisoners from the Austrians was quite humane: they shared food and tobacco. Diary’s author changed several camps, especially in detail he describes major Austrian war camp in Marchtrenk. The author reports the number of prisoners, the number of huts, their location. Diary’s materials indicate that people in the camp tried to comply with international standards. But while the prisoners lacked the products, were ill, had no opportunity to work. Diary’s materials kept the details of diet and nutritional standards of prisoners, diseases and vaccination, rights and responsibilities of different emergencies.
TRAVELOGUE AS A HISTORICAL SOURCE
Authors: Galina V. Rockina ;
Citation for an article: Rockina G. V. Travelogue as a historical source. 2016, no. 9, pp. 58.
ODYSSEUS’S JOURNEY TO THE AFTERLIFE: EXPERIENCE OF COMPREHENSION OF HUMAN PLACE IN GREEK THE ARCHAIC COSMOLOGY
Authors: Yuliya S. Obidina ;
The article deals with the journey of Odysseus to the underworld as an example of understanding of man's place in the Greek archaic cosmology. It is shown that the use of interdisciplinary approaches to the interpretation of the myth allows you to align the data of the epic and imaginations of the ancient Greeks about the structure of the universe. As a research method contextual analysis is chosen, as a methodological basis researches in anthropology and historical psychology became. The author notes that the journey of Odysseus at sea described by Homer can not be seen only in the horizontal plane as the traditional attempts to recreate the journey of Odysseus with the help of historical reconstruction encountered numerous contradictions of both synchronous and diachronic character. It is emphasized that the theory of localization of the other world, understood by commentators of Homer in the most literal sense, does not fit into the cosmological ideas of the ancient Greeks. It is no coincidence in Homer there is no certainty as to the localization WEST – EAST, no. 9, 2016 17 of kingdom of Hades. It is also noted that the endless path of Odysseus in the sea – it is much more than just a journey. The universe described by Homer is represented as a three-dimensional association. The article highlights the ambivalent image of the sea in Greek culture, which leads man to the kingdom of the dead. The image of the sea represents the image of death, because the sea voyage could lead either to the realm of the dead, or to a Blessed Island. That sea is the link between the worlds of the living, the dead and the gods. It is shown that the notions of the afterlife described by Homer has counterparts in other cultures that preceded the Greek, or follow her. Water connects the different parts of the world, both real and imagined, as in Greek, and in the Middle Eastern traditions. The article concludes that the myth of analysis allows us to do what could not be done by applying a historical reconstruction of the route of Odysseus on a map.
OBSERVATIONS ABOUT ENGLAND AND THE ENGLISH IN EGO DOCUMENTS AND RECORDS OF RUSSIAN TRAVELERS (THE END OF XVIII – EARLY XX CENTURIES)
Authors: Irina R. Chikalova ;
The article is devoted to representations of England and its inhabitants in the sources of personal origin and records of Russian travelers late XVIII – early XX centuries. It continues a series of author's publications devoted to the study of perception of Britain in the Russian Empire. This literary genre complement the overall picture of information which in excess can be gleaned from a variety of published by this time of scientific books and articles. Nevertheless, notes and observations of travelers continued to use the reader's interest. Initially, favorable conditions for the Russian nobility travelling abroad came after the manifesto of Catherine II in 1762. In Russia an interest in the history and culture of England is growing, encouraged by the authorities. Among the diaries of travelers of the time kept the description of England and the English people, essay by N. M. Karamzin stands. In the magazine “Herald of Europe” based by this historian excerpts from travelogues of Russian travelers containing educational information about England are published regularly. Of considerable interest are the publications he travel diaries and notes of Russian travelers who visited England in various Russian periodicals (P.P. Svinyin, P.I. Sumarokov, A.G. Glagovlev, M.P. Pogodin and others). Artistically processed impressions of Russian writers Ivan Turgenev, PA Vyazemsky and Goncharov, who visited England, belong to literary works. A special group of sources is made by official reports about travel-trips of Russian scientists and statesmen, as well as visitors of the World Industrial Exhibition in London in 1851. Another layer of the literature of England is represented by the works of Russian citizens stranded in England for political reasons. A definite milestone in the development of Russian-British relations was the Crimean War, which changed the tone of research. The author notes, if, before the middle of the XIX century memoirs, diaries and notes of travelers were the main sources of information about the UK, by the end of the century the situation changed. This literary genre complemented the overall picture of information which in excess can be gleaned from a variety of scientific books and articles published by this time. Nevertheless, notes and observations of travelers continued to use the reader's interest.
SLOVAKIA AND RUSSIA IN NOTES OF SLOVAK AND RUSSIAN TRAVELERS OF THE ХVIII CENTURY
Authors: Miroslav Danish;
On the basis of the travel notes and diaries of historical figures of the XVIII century the picture of the perception of the image of Russia is reconstructed through the eyes of the Slovaks. Slovakia at that time was part of the Hungarian kingdom, which makes these sources particularly valuable to identify the authors of travelogues. The study was conducted on the basis of inaccessible literature and archival materials in Ukraine. The image of Slovakia and Russia is given on the basis of travel notes, diaries and letters of four authors. The first source is notes of a Slovak envoy to the Swedish king Charles XII D. Krmana. It is particularly valuable description of the Battle of Poltava and the role of women in Veprik defense. The notes contain characteristics of significant historical figures of the beginning of the eighteenth century – Russian Tsar Peter I, Ukrainian Hetman Mazepa, the Swedish King Charles XII, the Hungarian prince Frantisek Rakoczi and others. The second source, retaining the impressions of travelers Slovak Russian lands, the Slovak cities in Austria and Hungary, is owned by Vladimir Grigorovich-Barsky. Notes by V. Grigorovich-Barsky had an impact on the spread in the Russian knowledge of architectural monuments, ethnographic peculiarities of geography, history and culture of many towns and areas of Europe (in particular, the Slovak city of Kosice). The most popular in that era were the travel notes of Count Mikhail Benevskaya, Slovak origin, fated to become the king of Madagascar. His travel notes between Russian captivity kept the pictures of life in Russian cities – Kazan, Kiev, St. Petersburg, as well as in Siberia and Kamchatka. The fourth source of this research is “short geographical description of Hungary” from the pen of a prominent church and cultural figure of Russia I. Fal'kovskii, representative of the Russian Commission Tokaj in Hungary. In addition to this work the article analyzes letters by Fal'kovskii as a source for studying the history of the Lyceum in Bratislava at the end of the XVIII century. Surviving to the present day notes, diaries, letters, Slovak and Russian figures are evidence of communication, cultural richness of Slovak and Russian peoples, their mutual recognition.
«ИЗ ЛОНДОНА В КОНСТАНТИНОПОЛЬ»: ПУТЕВОЙ ДНЕВНИК АНГЛИЙСКОЙ АРИСТОКРАТКИ ЛЕДИ МЭРИ УОРТЛИ МОНТЕГЮ
Authors: Даниела Кодайова;
В работе на основе современных методологических подходов представлен уникальный источник XVIII века – первый женский травелог английской путешественницы, су¬пру¬ги дипломата, которая сопровождала его на пути из Лондона в Константинополь (Стамбул). Путевой дневник леди Мэри можно оценивать с точки зрения раскрытия различных тем. В нем представлены современные тому времени исторические реалии, проблема поло-жения политической элиты, феномен путешествия нового времени, история повседнев-ности, гендерные исследования, вопросы рецепции импульсов другой культурной среды. В статье подробно описаны обстоятельства жизненного пути автора путевого дневника, оформлен¬ного в виде писем. Дочь известного аристократа, принадлежавшего к партии консерваторов, вышла замуж за Уортли Монтегю, тяготевшего к либеральным политическим взглядам. Несмотря на успешную карьеру писательницы, она выбрала путь верной супруги английского дипломата, отправленного служить в Османскую им-перию. Почти двухлетнее путешествие леди Мэри через всю Европу на Восток отражено в фиктивных письмах друзьям. В статье анализируется часть этих писем, в которых сохранились впечатления от посещения земель Габсбургской монархии. Показаны ис¬то-рические и политические обстоятельства путешествия по территориям, недавно освобож-денным от турок, состояние дорог, религиозные предпочтения, характеристика местных жителей, в первую очередь политической элиты. Картины местной жизни представлены через призму сторонницы англиканской церкви. Приведен ряд сюжетов о посещении супругами Монтегю Османской империи. Особый интерес у автора путевого дневника вызвало положение женщин при дворе султана. Леди Мэри стала первой европейской писательницей, которая представила мусульманский мир с точки зрения женщины. Из Турции она привезла не только свои яркие впечатления, но и опыт вакцинирования против оспы. В заключение сделан вывод о значении этого источника для развития традиции светского женского травелога.
SHOLARSHIPS OF RUSSIAN UNIVERSITIES IN EUROPE IN 1800–1810-TH (ON THE BASIS OF LETTERS AND DIARIES)
Authors: Татьяна Николаевна Жуковская;
The author on the basis of archival materials and memoirs represents the travel history of the landmark-university centers of students and graduates of the St. Petersburg Pedagogical Institute on the eve after the war of 1812. In connection with the educational reforms of Alexander I, the young Russian universities were to form their own professorial staff to replace foreign visitors. Sending university graduates abroad to prepare for a professorship spread to St. Petersburg Pedagogical Institute which was established in 1804 as a branch of the future university. The instructions of the Institute professors to seconded candidates are described in details, which contain extensive information about the level of teaching scientific disciplines at universities in Europe, whose experience was important for the Russian higher schools. The article examines ЗАПАД – ВОСТОК, № 9, 2016 94 two episodes from the history of “academic travels” of the Russian students: training of 12-professorants of the St. Petersburg Pedagogical Institute in the universities of Germany, Austria, England and France in 1808–1811, and a business trip of students of the Pedagogical Institute to England in 1816–1819 for acquaintance with the theory and practice of mutual learning by the method of J. Lancaster. The last experience was necessary for distribution of primary schools that remained the weakest link of the educational reforms of Alexander I. The surviving correspondence sent by Russian students to the Conference of Pedagogical Institute and to Minister of national education, other sources as well, allow to reconstruct the circumstances of their displacement in Europe, the system of scientific training and scientific communication in the beginning of the XIX century, peculiarities of everyday life of Russian students abroad, the perception by them of the national and cultural peculiarities of the Western European countries. There are extensive quotations from archival documents that show various sides of trips: travel routes, the difficulties faced by Russians abroad, financing system. These materials describe in detail the mechanism of supervision trips by the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, as well as the commitment and competence of the Emperor Alexander I in training for the higher pedagogical school.
TRIPS OF RUSSIAN SLAVISTS TO THE SLAVIC LANDS (FROM THE HISTORY OF THE FORMATION OF THE NATIONAL SLAVIC STUDIES)
Authors: Галина Николаевна Лебедева;
The article deals with scientific trips as a vital factor which is needed for the scientist's formation. In the XIX century international trips of university professors and academicians to get acquainted with the language, history and culture of foreign people were required to prepare for the occupation of posts and obtaining academic degrees. It was well understood by the organizers of the Russian science. The major role in the Russian Slavic studies scientific trips of the first Slavists to the Slavic lands, which were part of the German and Austrian empires. Examples of the first scientific trips of University Slavists in the 1840s were represented, which played an important role in the formation of University Slavic studies. The article examines in detail the scientific and political views of V. I. Lamansky and his main scientific works. as well as what kind of role in their process his research trips to foreign countries played. There are different evaluations and the perspectives of modern Russian scientists about the importance of scientific creativity by Lamansky for the formation and development of the Russian Slavic Studies. It is emphasized the lack to date general work of this scientist. It is analyzed in detail the value of his two trips to the Slavic lands for scientific work and teaching activities by V. Lamansky. An important role in the effectiveness of these scientific trips his fluency in Slavic languages played. Public rise in Russia of the 1860s reinforced the public's attention to the works by Lamansky. As a philologist, who knows all of the Slavic and Western languages, VI Lamansky after L. Štúr Slovak, Czech K. Havlicek and other West Slavic theoreticians panslavism (but first in Russia) expressed in the Russian press the idea about the existence of a single Slavic people. As an educator Lamansky brought up a whole generation of followers who also had their students. They were representatives of different directions: Slavic historians, Byzantinists, who led the department in leading Russian universities.
UNKNOWN PAGES OF LIFE AUTHOR OF THE FIRST GUIDE TO CRIMEA G. G. MOSKVICH
Authors: Лариса Ивановна Лысова;
The article is devoted to the life of one of the first significant publishers of the Crimea and the Russian Empire guides, and also one of the most successful organizers of the excursion business in Russia Grigory Moskvich, who at the turn of XIX–XX centuries created a business that is unparalleled to this day. During the period from 1888 to 1935 he had published more than 825000 copies of 225 guides established the largest sales network of guides created in the Crimea and in the Caucasus an extensive and well-equipped system tour routes, allowing hundreds of thousands of people in the country to have the opportunity and pleasure to experience the unique history and nature of their Homeland. On archival and local history materials fate of G. Moskvich is reconstructed, his date of birth, religion, preparation history of guide in Crimea are identified, aliases of future editions are disclosed. In more details the period of his life and work in Yalta, the last years of his life are described. “Guide in the Crimea” has become one of the most successful publishers of projects by G. Moskvich: before 1917 27 editions of this book came out. A picture of a successful book and newspaper trade and promotional activities of G. Moskvich, the story of his relationship with A.P.Chekhov is presented. G. Moskvich constantly invented new and original business projects that provided him a good profit. He publishes a series of guides of the individual, the most popular cities of Crimea – Yalta, Sevastopol, Theodosia, the first practical guide in the Georgian Military Highway, Vladikavkaz and Tbilisi, “Album of types of Crimea.” By the end of the XIX century he also organized large-scale implementation of his WEST – EAST, no. 9, 2016 125 printed products, and later became the founder of the tour business in Russia. At the beginning of the XX century G. Moskvich is a recognized publisher of the best guides in Russia. Only in 1907 his publishing house publishes guides in the Crimea, the Caucasus, the Volga River, St. Petersburg, Moscow, Odessa, Warsaw, on the Georgian Military Highway, the Black Sea coast, in the Caucasian Mineral Waters, organizes the release of the daily newspaper “Life Resorts.”
MALE SEXUALITY AND CONVENTIONAL MASCULINITY IN RUSSIAN ARISTOCRATIC CULTURE AT THE TURN OF XIX–XX CENTURIES (ON THE EXAMPLE OF L. N. TOLSTOY’S BIOGRAPHY)
Authors: Наталья Львовна Пушкарёва;
The article deals with the phenomenon of the writer L. N. Tolstoy as a “symbol of Russian sexual power.” In the US historiography devoted to Russian sexual culture, references to the example of L. Tolstoy are the most typical. Private intimate life of a writer is considered based on his diaries, works of art and contemporary estimates. This reconstruction is a unique material for an understanding of the moral, ethical and other social norms in shaping masculinity in the Russian noble culture at the turn of XIX–XX centuries. Sexuality of Tolstoy is theorized in relation to social history. The identity of the writer is seen as a model male subjectivity. Under conventional masculinity in the article there are mentioned normative ideas about masculinity prevailing in the society and the consciousness of the individual. On the basis of ego-documents preserved in the heritage of the writer, his image is formed as a carrier of aggressive masculinity which was typical for that time. Because of children's psychological trauma in children during Tolstoy's life, he had the idea of worshipping maternal start in a woman and aversion to sex in the woman-mother. Later these ideas were reflected in his literary works, especially in the “Kreutzer Sonata”. Responsibility for the early sexual experiences and sexual promiscuity in his youth the writer brings to women. By the way his opinion on the morality of the Institute of prostitution is known. The complexities of family life of the writer with S. A. Bers, including sexual, are rooted in the absence of a happy start and sexual promiscuity in his youth. Family discord in the late 1880s coincided with the religious quest of the writer and heated debate in Russian society on sexual matters. His attitude to this discussion Tolstoy expressed in the “Kreutzer Sonata” (1891). And in his personal life already in 1890, the writer came to the need for separate life with his wife, devoting himself to the service of God. After the writer's death in 1910, his widow has maintained all of his heritage, including personal diaries, which revealed his intimate, including sexual side of life
EGYPTIAN FATE TATAR PRINCESS TULUNBAY
Authors: Александр Геннадьевич Бахтин;
The practice of dynastic marriages in the Mongol Empire in the XIII−XIV centuries is highlighted. The elite preferred to marry within the Mongol world. Representatives of the semi-independent ulus often exchanged brides. They were trying to maintain the traditional practice of marriage contacts of former times and to keep the unity of the Mongolian. From the Yuan China to Hulaguidsky Iran Princess Kokechi was sent. Marital contacts with the aristocracy and subordinate agricultural people had spread. There were many marriages of Mongol-Tatar princesses and duchesses with the Russian princes. Along with this, there were marriages with foreign princes and princesses. Most often these were marriage alliances with the rulers of neighboring lands, which was dictated by political interests, the need to protect their possessions from the invasions and enlist powerful patron and ally. However, these also happened between the distant countries. The central theme is the story of courtship and marriage of the Egyptian Mamluk Sultan al-Malik al-Nasir and the princess of the Golden Horde Tulunbay. Bride’s genealogy, relationship with Khan Uzbek is determined. Marriage was aimed at strengthening the alliance of the Golden Horde and Egypt against Hulaguidsky Iran. The outer ceremonial side of the marriage,dowry’s size were discussed with the ambassadors in details. Nevertheless, effort and material costs spent by diplomats although met with a positive result, but had a negligible impact on the parties. By the wedding weakening ЗАПАД – ВОСТОК, № 9, 2016 152 Iran no longer represented a threat to the Egypt, at the same time continued the rivalry with the Golden Horde for Azerbaijan. Interest in alliance fell quickly from the Egyptian side. Political intrigue identified thedifficult fate of the princess Tulunbay. Immediately after the lush weddings she fell into disgrace and was removed from the palace, and then a scandalous divorce followed. The circumstances of the divorce, and information on the three subsequent marriage of the princess, diplomatic correspondence on this matter and the time of her death are considered
CRIMEA IN TRAVEL NOTES OF EUROPEANS (XVII−XIX CENTURIES).
Authors: Олег Генрихович Левенштейн;
[REVIEW TO BOOK: E. N. DEREMEDVED-ERBASH. CRIMEA: IN THE FOOTSTEPS OF FORGOTTENS. NOTES ACCORDING TO THE LITERATURE LOCAL HISTORY. SIMFEROPOL: BUSINESS-INFORM, 2013. 184 P.]
INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE “RUSSIAN AND SLOVAKS IN HISTORICAL RETROSPECTIVE: CULTURE, POLITICS AND HISTORICAL MEMORYˮ. SIXTH MEETING OF THE COMMISSION OF HISTORIANS IN RUSSIA AND SLOVAKIA (YOSHKAR-OLA, 20−22 SEPTEMBER 2016)
Authors: Галина Викторовна Рокина; Михаил Юрьевич Дронов ;
Citation for an article: Rockina G. V., Dronov M. Ju. International scientific conference “Russian and Slovaks in historical retrospective: culture, politics and historical memoryˮ. Sixth meeting of the commission of historians in Russia and Slovakia (Yoshkar-Ola, 20−22 September 2016). West – East. 2016, no. 9, pp. 185188.
ACTIVITIES OF THE YOUTH SECTION OF YOSHKAR-OLA BRANCH OF THE RUSSIAN SOCIETY OF THE INTELLECTUAL HISTORY IN 2016
Authors: Елена Владимировна Лежнина ;
Citation for an article: Lezhnina E. V. Activities of the youth section of Yoshkar-Ola branch of the Russian Society of the intellectual history in 2016. West – East. 2016, no. 9, pp. 189191