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West-East №12
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2019-12-25 14:38:32
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European Studies in Higher Education: on the 30th anniversary of the Jean Monnet Programme
Authors: Olga N. Oleinikova;
Citation for an article: Oleinikova O.N. European Studies in Higher Education: on the 30th anniversary of the Jean Monnet Programme. West – East. 2019, no. 12, pp. 912. DOI: 10.30914/2227-6874-2019-12-9-12
The concepts of “united humanity” and “common past” in the intellectual heritage of the Russian historical school
Authors: Lorina P. Repina;
The article analyzes the concepts of “united humanity” and “common past” that were formulated on the basis of the creative development of Western philosophical thought and privailing in the Russian intellectual tradition of the second half of the 19th century, which formed the ideological basis of the original interpretation of the subject field of world history. In the first half of the 19th century, the concepts of “national” and “Russian” developed under the influence of romantic and educational traditions, in the process of cultural dialogue between Russia and Europe, the relationship of intellectuals and authorities. However, despite the fact that in the 1830s the national idea became one of the key problems of Russian public thought, the cultural paradigm of the European Education, which determined the priority value of the universal human principle in history, continued to be one of the foundations of the worldview of many Russian intellectuals. In search of answers to the question about the country’s development paths, the participants in the heated discussions that unfolded in Russian society at that time drew their arguments from the history of Western Europe. The successes of European science and education, rapid progress in all spheres of society, inspired Russian intellectuals with a certain optimism and faith in the possibility of borrowing the best practices of the West. In this social and intellectual context of the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries, as well as in the perspective of the development of historical thought of the modern era, theoretical intuitions, ideological convictions, ethical and civic positions of leading scholars of the Russian school of world history are considered. The article was prepared on the basis of a report presented at the International Scientific Colloquium “The Sociocultural Life of Europe and Russia through the Eyes of Intellectuals of the XIX Century” (Orel State University, University of Rouen, France, October 29–30, 2018).
Franco-German relations in the context of European integration (1970s)
Authors: Dmitry V. Shmelev;
The article studies the dynamics of Franco-German relations during the presidency of V. Giscard d’Estaing and the chancellorship of H. Schmidt. The focus is on the problems of the Franco-German military and political cooperation, the specifics of diplomatic contacts and personal relations between the two policies, the history of the creation of the European monetary system. The author noted that the Franco-German agreement became a central element in the development of the European integration process, including the creation of the European Council and the European Monetary System. It was the Franco-German dialogue and efforts that allowed us to overcome the period of skepticism regarding European construction and give new impetus to the processes of creating economic and monetary union and political integration. Due to its active role in international relations, the Federal Republic of Germany was closely integrated into Western European political and economic institutions. At the same time, the article points out the difficulties that stood in the way of cooperation, which concerned the fears of German military revanchism, economic domination in Europe, or the reunification of the two parts of the country by the French political and diplomatic elite. In a more global context, Franco-German relations became part of the Washington-Paris-Bonn or Moscow-Paris-Bonn trilateral contacts and made a serious contribution to the diplomatic discussions of the 1970s.
Aufbau Ost Programme and East-West alignment: overcoming the regional disproportion of the united Germany at the beginning of the XXI century
Authors: Tatyana G. Khrishkevich;
The article presents an analysis of restoration of East Germany after the The article presents an analysis of restoration of East Germany after the reunification of Germany. The author refers to the implementation of the Aufbau Ost programme and the main stages of the socio-economic reconstruction of East Germany. Particular attention is paid to coalition agreements of political parties in 1998–2018 and Federal Government Reports on German Unity. The article analyzes the content and general principles of the Solidarity Pacts, which serve as the basis for the process of alignment of old and new lands. The central objective of restoring East Germany in the post-unification period is to reduce unemployment. Solidarity Pacts cover a wide range of areas that should be restructured in East Germany (supporting small and medium-sized businesses, promoting business startups, science and innovation; expanding science-intensive technology projects; supporting culture, sports, gender policy, education and university research clusters; advanced training of employees). As a result, the author concludes that the East-West alignment is successful in the economic development of East Germany, in particular, in the growth of its industrial potential and international competitiveness. The share of industry in gross production in East Germany is higher than in the European Union. At the same time, the goal of harmonizing the level of welfare of the population in the eastern federal lands to the level of West Germany is not fully achieved. Unemployment rates are higher than in the West, and income levels are lower. The East-West alignment and socio-economic reforms to some extent contributed to the fact that Germany overcame the 2008 economic crisis almost painlessly. The federal governments under the leadership of A. Merkel continue to improve the social system (improving the labor market, combating unemployment, pension reform, health care reform, family policy, etc.).
New Tychy: the exemplary city of the Polish People's Republic in the 1950s: the evolution of social memory
Authors: Aleksander V. Zhidchenko;
This article discusses some aspects of the evolution of the social memory of a new city, built in the 1950s in the Polish People’s Republic as an exemplary socialist space for everyday life at the stage of restoration of the country’s national economy after the Second World War. The study became part of a large-scale comparative project related to the analysis of the evolution of everyday life and the social memory of new cities and urban areas of the USSR and the countries of the socialist bloc. An analysis of various groups of sources, among which an important place was occupied by memoirs published on the Internet, as well as materials of modern public and cultural projects that addressed the memory of citizens, led to the conclusion that there was a critical attitude towards such cities in the 1990s – early 2000s years, and about a new wave of nostalgic perception and at the same time, the official approval of the value of such an urban environment in the last decade. At the same time, at the present stage, reflection and assessment about living in such an urban environment is not the same for representatives of the older and younger generations.
European experience in business modeling of sustainable development of network of green building centers
Authors: Irina Yu. Petrova; Viktoriya M. Zaripova; Yuliya A. Lezhnina; Tatiana V. Zolina; Vladimir Gumilar; Irina V. Aksyutina;
The paper analyzes the demand for educational programs in the field of green and intelligent buildings. The authors show that in order to ensure the feasibility of Federal programs, it is necessary to prepare a sufficient number of specialists, and this can be not only long-term educational programs for the preparation of bachelors and specialists, but also short-term training and retraining courses. However, in order to quickly organize a steadily developing educational center, which will effectively perform its tasks, it is necessary to study the experience of European colleagues, adapt it to the needs of the region. The task of the article is to create the educational center providing sustainable training and retraining of personnel for the construction industry of the Astrakhan region. Within the framework of the study on the project “Modernization of curricula in the sphere of smart building engineering - Green Building (GREB)”, project no. 574049-EPP-1-2016-1-IT-EPPKA2-CBHE-JP the study programs of the leading universities of Sweden, Italy, Spain, Austria, Slovenia, as well as the practical needs and experience of the production workers of the Slovenian Construction cluster were analyzed. To achieve this goal, the specifics of the educational programs of the green building center are determined and recommendations on its organization are given, taking into account the European experience. The achievement of sustainable development of the green building center, organized on the basis of the Astrakhan State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, is guaranteed by relations with other universities that are part of the consortium of the network of green building centers, which currently includes 16 universities in Russia, Uzbekistan, Mongolia, Italy and Spain.
Experience of European migration policy and ways of its application in Russia
Authors: Andrey V. Syzranov;
The article discusses the features of European migration policy and the ways of its application in Russia. It is important to study the experience of European countries to improve the migration situation in Russia, the opportunity to use the established mechanisms of migration management. The migration policy of Western countries is characterized by a focus on the use of an integrated approach, on the close coordination of its various directions. A similar approach is also possible in Russia.
Ensuring the safety of transboundary water resources: European experience
Authors: Lyudmila V. Boronina; Lkhagvadulam Byambajav; Ekaterina V. Davydova; Werner Professor Gornik ; Arkadii F. Sokolsky;
Ensuring the safety of transboundary water resources has been assigned by the Russian government to national priorities. The foundation of cross-border cooperation is the process of creating and implementing contractual relations in the border areas, which are aimed at finding solutions to the tasks. International experience suggests that cross-border interaction is the main factor in expanding interethnic economic ties, and the rational use of the advantages of cross-border location provides an opportunity to give a strong impetus to the development of territories. Water resources often cause international tensions and conflicts over access to and use of them. Therefore, one of the most important transboundary tasks is the safe supply of water, the need to ensure rational use, equitable distribution and provision of water for those who need it. A striking example of a transboundary reservoir is the Caspian Sea, according to which on August 12, 2018, the Convention on the Regulation of the Rights and Obligations of States located on the Caspian Sea Coast was signed in Kazakhstan, taking into account the environmental factor in the implementation of large-scale offshore projects. The article provides an analysis of the best European experience in managing transboundary water bodies, proposes measures that will make it possible to improve the economic and environmental factor of managing the Caspian Sea. The implementation of the provisions of the Convention by the Caspian littoral states will promote good neighborliness and mutually beneficial cooperation based on European experience, promote the peaceful use of the Caspian Sea, the rational use of its resources, the study, protection and preservation of its natural environment. The results of scientific monitoring studies on marine pollution in the shallow zone of the western part of the Caspian are presented, conclusions are drawn about the need to continue research and disseminate information.
Sustainable development of the Caspian region on the basis of the analysis and dissemination of European experience
Authors: Olga M. Shikulskaya; Galina B. Abuova; Anna E. Usynina;
The ecological state of the Caspian Sea was analyzed. The Caspian is on the verge of catastrophe. The causes of the Caspian’s problems were shown. Currently, the environmental problems of the Caspian Sea attract the attention of not only the States of the region, but also of the developed countries of the West. The ways of solving environmental problems in Western countries have been analysed. The beginning of the twenty-first century was marked by the intensification of a number of global problems, among which the protection of the environment is of particular importance. In recent years the European Union has a significant place in solving environmental problems. In the EU they have accumulated practical experience in implementing sustainable development programmes. In recent years, European countries have consistently held the world leadership in the sustainable development index.The experience of the European Union in the transition to sustainable development and its stimulation is relevant. The experience of sustainable development of the Baltic States is analyzed. In order to achieve real results in solving environmental problems, cooperation between the EU and Russia becomes not only appropriate, but also necessary. The work presents the stages of development of cooperation between the EU and Russia on environmental issues. The Caspian region has its own features. Firstly, unlike the Baltic and Black Sea regions, none of the Caspian littoral states is part of the EU, which significantly reduces the EU’s ability to influence their environmental policies. Secondly, the availability of cheap natural gas in the Caspian region reduces the interest in using alternative energy, which does not contribute to solving environmental problems. It is concluded that it is necessary to study and disseminate the EU experience in solving these problems in the Caspian region. For this purpose, projects involving a set of activities should be developed.
The role of universities in the development of a safe environment in the context of mass migration
Authors: Irina V. Rayushkina;
The article is devoted to the problems of preserving the national security of Russia in conditions of mass migration with special attention to educational migration – foreign students. In the first part of the article the author gives a brief overview of the reasons for the growth of mass migration in Russia in general and in the Krasnodar region in particular, denoting the internal and external risks and threats to the national security of the country. In the second part, on the example of a particular University – Kuban State University (KubSU, Krasnodar, Russia) – it analyzes the conditions of adaptation and integration of foreign students into a foreign language culture on the basis of the “dialogue of cultures” as the fundamental factors of developing a safe educational environment, and offers certain approaches and ways of its making. One of the principal approaches to the problem is the so- called “individually identical” approach to each foreign student, based on personal-psychological and formal-personal relations between incoming and accepting parties, which, in turn, helps the dialogue of cultures arise and develop. The author considers the involvement of foreign students to participate in public, social and cultural activities to be special methods of developing a safe educational environment in the University, that embodies the idea to reveal the inner world of person, his/her abilities that leads to a stable balance and harmony of the individual. The author lists several events held at KubSU with the participation of international students as the veracity of this thesis. It is also proposed to introduce other technologies that contribute to the successful dialogue of cultures and, as a result, to ensure a safe environment at the University. In conclusion, the author emphasizes the importance assigned to universities, which are to provide a safe and favorable educational environment for all students, regardless of their country of origin.
Implementation of the grant programme “Jean Monnet Modules” in the Udmurt State University during 2016–2019 years
Authors: Ildar A. Latypov;
The aim of the paper is to research inculcation of the educational module, named after Jean Monnet, implemented within the Erasmus+ programme. The paper includes case study of the grant activity for fulfillment of Jean Monnet Module in the Udmurt State University (UdSU) during 2016–2019 years. Direct grant support from Erasmus+ was aimed at educational activity for implementation of 3 new courses within educational process of the Institute of Social Communications (ISC) of UdSU. Publication of scientific papers was connected with this grant project “European experience of Innovative Culture and IPR: Communicative aspects” (EICIPRC) only partly, (as dissemination of the results of the educational module). The author of the paper appreciates the support of all aforementioned organizations and institutions, which are not responsible for the information contained in the paper. Methodological base for this research includes the “case study” method and some appropriate elements of Paul Ricoeur’s methodological concept of narrative interpretation. The conclusions of the paper prove successful implementation of the aforementioned project and characterize further prospects of research and educational activity for scientific-theoretical grounding for all 3 new courses: “European experience of innovative culture: communicative aspects”, “European and Russian experience of intellectual property research in communication activity” and “Innovative media in the EU: role and functions”. The paper will be of great interest for Jean Monnet Module grant applicants, practitioners, researchers and lecturers in the fields of philosophy and sociology of education, social philosophy, pedagogical sciences and communicology.
Integrated methodology for adaptation of higher education process to the European academic community
Authors: Konstantin Yu. Korolev; Nataliya G. Olkhovik;
Regularity and consistency of higher education internationalization is defined by higher institution (HEI) capacity to adapt its educational policy to the international academic and professional community. The integrated methodology of adapting all trends of internationalization minimizes comprehensive and structural risks that may prevent from the proper functioning of credit mobility, learning outcomes recognition, ability of the student and higher education to participate actively in academic exchange and be present on the labour market. The researchers offer theoretical foundation of the methods to adapt to European academic community, design the integrated methodology. The proposed integrated methodology structurally refocuses the educational process to the learning outcomes, which could be universal for all partner universities, and switches the principles of higher education to the consolidated learning environment to adapt to overseas educational process through implementation of common European teaching and learning practices. Trialing the integrated methodology at Penza State University resulted in both positive and negative outcomes. The positive experience related to the realization of double-degree programs, academic mobility for domestic and foreign students of the 1st and 2nd cycles of higher education. Meanwhile, statistics obtained during internationalizing the Penza State University stated the urgent necessity to revise state regulatory documentation on the purpose of modernizing the administration and training processes at the 3rd cycle of higher education.
Jean Monnet program as an element of sustainable education on the example of projects in MGSU
Authors: Zinaida I. Ivanova; Michael Eichner; Stefan A. Shvedov;
The article raises questions of the formation of sustainable education and the role of education in the sustainable development. In order to achieve this goal there is the need of the significant changes to national educational systems based on common criteria of the Bologna Declaration. The authors emphasize that the European education support program Erasmus + Jean Monnet actively stimulates the Bologna process and thus makes a significant contribution to the process of establishing sustainable education. The article discusses the experience of implementation of two projects in MGSU: Erasmus+ Jean Monnet Module “Intercultural Europe: Urban Planning on the Principles of Social Integration” and Erasmus + Jean Monnet Project “Migration Processes and Urban Planning: EU Experience”. Based on the results of a sociological survey of graduate students (areas of study “Urban Planningˮ and “Architectureˮ), who studied the module and participated in scientific events, a positive perception of the subject and content of projects is noted. Respondents emphasize the practical usefulness of the module for their professional development and recommend that this discipline be included in the training programs for BSc and MSc students. The authors also noted the increased interest of students in European subjects, increased intercultural competence and a desire to participate more actively in student academic mobility. In this context, the article contains the discussion on the questions of the need to saturate educational programs with the latest research in problem areas: social, environmental, climate and the formation of eco-anthropocentric thinking of the young generation. The diverse elements of sustainable development are only partially reflected in the curricula and disciplines of Russian universities. Another problem raised by the authors is a comprehensive and integrated social, natural-scientific and technical education. Future technical specialists should be “social engineers”, know how to solve social, economic and environmental problems in the process of implementing technical projects. Authors' conclusion: it is the multidisciplinarity of the projects supported by the Jean Monnet program, the relevance of the topic, and the focus on the integration of science and education that ensure the formation of sustainable education as a driving force for the sustainable development of the world.
Climate Change and Environmental Issues in the EU-Russia Interaction: Prospective for Academic Cooperation
Authors: Eldar A. Kurbanov; Alexey E. Fominykh;
Protection of environment and global climate change are among the most significant policy areas of the European Union. The environmental and climate change issues are also very crucial for the contemporary EU-Russia relations, as challenges here have transboundary character. The paper argue that it is environmental agenda still has its uniting potential for Russia and Europe, both for academic community and society as a whole, while universities should play a leading role in this dialogue. A general alienating the West in Russia, and obvious decline in bilateral communication under “the four common spaces”, academic and cultural exchanges remain about the only successfully operating interaction channel. Due to the EU sponsored Erasmus+ and Jean Monnet programmes, the Russian universities receive support from the European Union for their educational and research projects, including many ones in the field of environmental sciences. The number of such initiatives is still not very high as the majority of centers and chairs of European studies are mostly focused on humanities. However, the growth of “green economy” in the EU, as well as global promotion of the European environmental values will move the Russian academia towards new collaborations in this field. As a result, more applied research, including based on spatial technologies, will appear. The paper discusses the case of Volga State University of Technology, which possesses good experience of the EU-Russia academic cooperation in environmental science.
Students’ involvement in higher education quality assurance: European best practice
Authors: Mikhail V. Petropavlovskiy; Olga G. Nefedova; Natalia V. Vakhraneva;
The articles gives a brief description of the results of the Jean Monnet project “European Quality Assurance for Students”, implemented by the Mari State University (grantholder) in cooperation with the National Accreditation Agency (NAA) and the Russian Union of Youth. It presents an analysis of European practice of involving students in internal and external quality assurance of higher education in Germany and Great Britain. German universities widely use special student questionnaires as one of the methods to evaluate the content of lecture courses and seminar studies, as well as the entire study programme. The German Student Accreditation Pool plays an important role in the national system. On the one hand, it organizes special preparation for students who are to participate in the study programmes accreditation; on the other hand, it provides accreditation agencies with a database of students for external reviews. German accreditation agencies are to include students into external review panels when carrying out programme accreditation, and student representatives have equal rights with other panel members. One of the goals of the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA) is to involve students in external quality assurance and support students’ participation in internal education quality assurance. The methods used by the Agency include the work of the Student Strategic Advisory Committee, the engagement of a student representative in the QAA Board and the Agency’s other committees, the participation of students as full and equal members of expert panels. Also if a HEI is under external review, the Agency engages this HEI’s students in the preparation of the self-assessment report, work with experts, informing students about the education quality assurance procedures and their results. The National Student Survey, conducted annually to assess the views of last-year undergraduates on the quality of degree programmes in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, also provides an important snapshot of information, both in terms of higher education management and in terms of making the choice of programme and HEI for future applicants.
Visegrad Group: Mission accomplished
Authors: Galina V. Rokina;
Citation for an article: Rokina G.V. Visegrad Group: Mission accomplished. West – East. 2019, no. 12, pp. 202204. DOI: 10.30914/2227-6874-2019-12-202-204