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FROM THE SLOVAK-RUSSIAN TIES IN THE 18TH CENTURY
Authors: Miroslav Danish;
Slovak-Russian cultural, educational and scientific contacts in the XVIII century were very diverse. Their development depended, as a rule, on specific political, social, or territorial conditions. Scientific correspondence, exchange of views and scientific contacts in various branches of the humanities and natural sciences were carried out on the initiative of scientists and played an important role in the development of enlightenment and culture in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The Austrian monarchy suffered significantly as a result of the counter-reformation, and conditions for the development of science, including foreign scientific contacts, were unfavorable. If they existed, they were limited to the predominantly Catholic regions of Europe. In Slovakia, unlike the rest of the Habsburg monarchy, the most favorable conditions for the dissemination of enlightenment and science have developed, in part because the Viennese government tolerated the non-Catholic environment in Hungary to an extreme extent. The situation changed in the second half of the XVIII century, when the Enlightenment reached its zenith. The era of Theresian enlightenment began to solve the problem of establishing broader connections with foreign scientific centers. The borders for mutual information and the exchange of scientific views were gradually opened. The transcription of the Petersburg Academicians (T. S. Bayer, H. Goldbach and I. G. Gmelin) with Slovak scientists is a valuable material for studying the relations between Russian and Slovak science. It shows that the origins of these links already in the first half of the XVIII century. Stood the Slovak scholars Matej Bel and Samuel Mikovini. Matej Bel, a great scholar and supporter of religious tolerance, and Samuel Mikovini went beyond the bounds of the then science and embarked on a completely unconventional path. The successor and successor of Matej Bel has become an employee of the court Viennese library, and then its director Adam Frantisek Kollar. A special place in the development of Russian-Slovak scientific and cultural ties was the spread of Russian books in Slovakia. In the eighteenth century, the delivery of books from the Slavic East to Slovakia through the territory of Transcarpathia became very significant. An important page in the history of Russian-Slovak relations in the eighteenth century are cultural and educational contacts in the field of education. In this period, a significant place in their development belongs to the Kiev-Mohyla Academy, whose influence extended far beyond Russia and Ukraine. A special place in the joint relations was occupied by contacts in the field of medicine. Slovak-Russian scientific contacts, however, were largely sporadic and did not have a systematic character.
THE MEMORY OF EVENTS IN THE CONTEXTS OF NATIONAL, CROSS AND GLOBAL HISTORY (TO THE FORMULATION OF THE QUESTION)
Authors: Lorina P. Repina;
The article examines some aspects of the consequences of the so-called “memorial turn” in modern humanitarian knowledge. The views on such an analytical category as an event are presented in detail. Historical science has experienced a “comeback”, or “a revival of the event” as early as the last third of the 20th century, but a special epistemological status was taken up with the development of the memorial paradigm in the general context of the renewal of historical science at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries. Noticeable the creation of various interpretations of history in favor of certain political views is. That is why the so-called “historical policy”, or the politics of the past, occupies more and more place in modern studies. At the same time, a spatial turn takes place, whose brightest manifestation, reflecting the changes in the world and in science, was the formation of an interdisciplinary research field of global or new world history (globalhistory, newworldhistory). Scientists are developing models of transnational and global history, a corpus of research has been added to overcome the limited horizons of stories of individual nation states. Such a story appears today not only as a set of fundamental empirical studies, but also as a unique in its diversity of space of ideas and approaches, defined in different ways – as a transnational, cross, connected (histological, integrated, integrated, entangled, shared, integrated). The leader of this scientific direction In Russia is the Institute of World History of the Russian Academy of Sciences, which, in its title, has retained the name “universal history”, which in the Russian historiographic tradition of the 19th century was broadly interpreted as the history of all mankind. The emergence of global history in its modern version reflects the development of a thinking tradition in which the integrity principle is combined with differences and diversity. In recent years, the number of scientists developing models of transnational and global history has increased noticeably, and the corpus of research overcoming the limited horizons of the stories of individual national states has replenished accordingly. The “connected” and “cross-over” histories that are part of the field of transnational research, contrasted the national and classical universal history with the history of interrelated processes that unite societies, cultures, and civilizations. The focus of related history is complex multicultural education or various forms of international communities in more or less close relationships.
THE SECOND WORLD WAR THROUGH THE EYES OF THE RUSSIAN EMIGRE. PUBLICISM G. N. GARIN-MIKHAILOVSKY IN THE NEWSPAPER “SLOVAK” (1939–1945)
Authors: Aleksandr V. Randin;
The article examines the attitude of Russian post-revolutionary emigration to the Second World War and to the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945 on the example of analysis of extensive journalism G. N. Garin-Mikhailovsky, a former high-ranking Russian diplomat and a major international lawyer in the daily “Slovak” – the central press organ of the Slovak People's Party, ruling in the Slovak state (1939–1945). The author emphasizes that, cooperating in the main organ of political propaganda of the authoritarian Slovak state, the Nazi Germany's satellite and being an employee of the Slovak Foreign Ministry, Garin-Mikhailovsky was not free to express his views. Nevertheless, his articles reflected a profound dilemma that confronted Russian emigrants in the prewar and military period: the principal rejection of Soviet power and sincere patriotism, love of Russia. From this point of view, the journalism of Garin- Mikhailovsky is chronologically divided into two groups. In 1939–1941 he, having suppressed hatred for “Bolshevism”, very optimistically estimates the rapprochement between Germany and the USSR, natural geopolitical allies and “victims” of the Versailles system, which will allow his homeland to return to the number of great powers. Germany's attack on the Soviet Union was a tragedy for him, as can be seen from the nature of his journalism in the second half of 1941–1944. Garin-Mikhailovsky, apparently did not consider it possible for him to glorify the victory of “German weapons” on the eastern front in the spirit of the remaining materials of the “Slovak”. Therefore, he completely switches from Russian issues to criticism of “old colonial empires” (England and France) and an analysis of the international political and military-strategic situation in the Mediterranean, Pacific regions and the Middle East.
“EAGLE” BY A. S. KHOMYAKOV AND SYMBOLS OF THE SLOVAK NATIONAL MOVEMENT OF THE XIX CENTURY
Authors: Tat'yana Ivantyshinova;
Symbols were an important part in development of modern nations. Among the sources of inspiration nature and its portrait in folk lore (image of birds of prey in Tatras) was also. The poem “Eagle” by A. S. Chomiakov, where the author implored the midnight eagle (Russia) not to forget his younger brothers, has become very popular among Slovaks in first half of 19th century. The poem was published 1843 by Ján Kollár in his Diary of Travel to Upper Italy (written by Roman letters in Russian language). The publication aroused some anxiety, especially among followers of Ľ. Štúr. The book was modified and the poem by A. S. Chomiakov removed. However, it was already rooted in awareness of Slovaks and was disseminated via transcripts. The symbol of an eagle from Tatras was extremely frequent in appendix of Slovak National Newspapers 1845–1847) Orol Tatránski. Title page of second volume featured a quote from the poem “Eagle” by A. S. Chomiakov as a motto. Based on that various researchers assumed that the edition was influenced by ideas of Chomiakov. An analysis on content does not confirm that. Eagle from Tatras (Orol Tatránski) is until these days understood only as national symbol of Slovaks. Orol Tatránski published by Štúr was very important especially during the development of national identity of Slovaks. Slavianophiles left distinct mark in development of Slovak culture in 19th century, not only in poetry (Chomiakov was one of the most often translated Russian poets of that time) but also in philosophy, religion and history. “Midnight Eagle” of Chomiakov was a symbol that without doubt had the most significant impact on Russophile feelings in Slovak society. At the end of the XIX century, the predominant oriental orientation of the cultural and political elite of Slovak society had changed. The “Northern Eagle” loses its former mobilization role and is gradually ousted from the consciousness of the Slovaks.
SLOVAKS IN RUSSIA DURING THE FIRST WORLD WAR AND THE CIVIL WAR (STATE OF HISTORIOGRAPHY AND RESEARCH PROBLEMS)
Authors: Elena P. Serapionova;
The article analyzes the state of the historiography of the issue, compares the study of the topic “The Czechs In Russia” and “The Slovaks In Russia”, concludes that, unfortunately, emigration to Russia, unlike, say, emigration to the United States, unfortunately, and in the Russian historiography of worthy reflection. Discussion points in its study are indicated. The prehistory of the issue is considered, the origins of the formation of the Slovak colony In Russia are shown, the importance of the First World War period for the Slovak history was noted, when the basic concepts of independence for the Slovaks were developed. The movement for gaining national independence due to specific wartime conditions received the greatest development abroad, including In Russia, where there was a struggle between representatives of various political trends and orientations. The idea of a joint state association with the Czechs was reflected in the creation of joint bodies of leadership of Czech and Slovak societies, the formation of the Czech-Slovak corps from the Czech team. The article notes the difficulties in attracting Slovaks to the Czechoslovak volunteer units for the struggle on the side of the Entente, and the reasons for this phenomenon are considered. The article also identifies the most popular subjects of this topic. First and foremost, the theme of prisoners of war of the First World War, conditions of their maintenance began to cause considerable interest in recent years. In Russian historiography, several works on prisoners of war of Czechs and Slovaks appeared, including those written on documents and materials of local archives. On the basis of new archival and published documents, prospects for further research are outlined: the number of Slovaks in the legions, the relations between Czechs and Slovaks in military formations, the principles of building legions and the adoption of command language. It seems interesting to trace the development of the concept of “Czechoslovakism” and the attitude of Czech and Slovak political and military figures to it, as well as the perception of Czechs and Slovaks of Russia, its real role in gaining these peoples independence.
ALEXANDER KOTOMKIN (SAVINSKY) AND CZECHOSLOVAK LEGIONARIES ON THE VOLGA, THE URALS AND SIBERIA (1918–1920)
Authors: Sergei V. Starikov;
In the article we are talking about Alexander Kotomkin (1885–1964), who, with the support of the Grand Duke Constantine Romanov, the poet “K. R.”, became a famous poet, published his works in collections and literary magazines of the early twentieth century. Member of the First World War, Kotomkin called for his work to unite against German aggression, was an ardent supporter of the Slavic unity. In 1917 he published the historical drama “Jan Hus”, which became the first In Russian literature dedicated to the 500th anniversary of the death of the Czech national hero. The poet welcomed the Czech national movement, sent poetic greetings to the “Brothers-Czechs”. Revolution and the civil war In Russia changed the fate of Kotomkin. He was a participant in the Civil War on the Volga, the Urals, in Siberia on the side of the White Movement, did not accept Bolshevism, remained a Russian patriot, advocated the preservation of Russia's traditional values. The poet welcomed the actions of the Czechoslovak Corps on the territory of Russia, which acted with arms in hand against the Soviet power. Kotomkin believed that Czechoslovakians together with the Russian volunteers would destroy the regime of the Bolsheviks and achieve liberation. Together with the troupe of the Kazan Theater, Kotomkin staged his play “Jan Hus” in the cities and major stations of the Siberian Railway. Czechoslovaks welcomed him. The delegation from President T. Masaryk in 1919 invited Kotomkin to visit Czechoslovakia. However, as the Red Army was approaching, the Czechoslovak Corps was eliminated from the general struggle and, in the opinion of the poet, betrayed the Russian patriots. Kotomkin became a participant in the death of the Siberian army, General Kappel. In spring of 1920 he became authorized ataman Semenov on the relationship with the command of the Czechoslovak Corps, tried to reach a compromise between anti-Bolshevik forces and Czechoslovaks. In 1920 after the defeat of the White Movement, Kotomkin emigrated to Czechoslovakia and called the Chekchoslovak period (1921–1926) the best period of his emigrant life.
"THERE IS POWER IN UNITY!". STEFANIK AND THE STRUGGLE FOR THE UNITY OF THE CZECHOSLOVAK RESISTANCE MOVEMENT IN RUSSIA IN 1916–1917
Authors: Michal Kšiňan;
In the article the author deals with the mission of Milan Rastislav Štefánik In Russia in the years 1916–1917; its main aim was to get a permission of the Russian Government to recruit Czech and Slovak prisoners of war into the emerging Czechoslovak Army in France and later also for Czechoslovak Army In Russia. During the mission, Štefánik was to collaborate with a Reichs-Member of Parliament and a president of the Czechoslovak National Council Josef Dürich. However, he got into arguments with him soon, because Dürich got under an influence of the Russian Government what was in contrary with the principles of the Czechoslovak National Council: this body stressed its own independence. In the end, it was mainly the February Revolution In Russia (1917), which tipped the balance in Štefánik´s favour. It’s understandable that it was not an argument of two persons only but whole groups. In the article, it is in detail described, how Štefánik made use of his social capital in order to discredit persons from the Dürich´s environment; in this respect, he was relatively successful. In this argument, he could lean on the General Maurice Janin, the chief of the French military mission In Russia, but also on French diplomats, Czech and Slovak collaborators or Russian military representatives. In the article the author deals with common practices used to discredit one´s political adversaries.
FALL OF TSARISM IN RUSSIA ON THE PAGES OF THE SLOVAK PERIODICAL PRESS FOR FEBRUARY-MARCH 1917
Authors: Lyubitsa Garbuleva;
The end of the Romanov dynasty became an event that received wide international coverage. Until March 1917, reports from Russia appeared with more or less intensity and frequency in the pages of the European press. Slovakia and its then periodicals were no exception. From the analysis of the Slovak periodicals of the period under review, it follows that of the many Slovak periodicals published in 1917, the following revolutionary events reacted to Russian revolutionary events: Slovenské noviny, Slovenský týždenník, Robotnícke noviny and Slovenské ľudové noviny. If “Slovenský týždenník” and “Slovenské ľudové noviny” reported only general information about these events, then “Slovenské noviny” and “Robotnícke noviny” systematically paid attention to the development of the situation In Russia. In the course of March, 1917, this topic was primarily covered by the Slovenské noviny, where most of the materials were. Slovak periodicals informed not only about the tense situation in Petrograd and Moscow, but also reported the gradual formation of the Russian post-October political scene. In assessing the Slovak press in February-March 1917, it can be stated that in February the February events were interpreted as crucial, as a revolution that brought fundamental changes to Russia.
THE CONCEPT OF “CRITICAL SLAVICISM” BY T. G. MASARYK AND CZECHOSLOVAK STUDIES OF THE INTERWAR PERIOD
Authors: Ol'ga V. Pavlenko;
The article examines the history of the Slavs in Czechoslovakia in 1920–1930-s of the twentieth century. This period was marked by large-scale Slavic studies conducted at the Russian Free University, which received subsidies from the government of the Czechoslovak Republic. The key figure in the historiography of that period is President Tomáš Garik Masaryk, who left a significant intellectual legacy. His research is devoted to the history of Slavic identity in Russia and Europe, as well as the study of Russian conservatism, which T. Masaryk perceived through the lens of liberal criticism and used the same argument. T. Masaryk paid considerable attention to the study of collective identities in Austria-Hungary. In his opinion, the national consciousness is most successfully spreading where the contrasts of “His” and “Alien” are sharper. Nevertheless, regional separatism was counterbalanced by the historical consciousness of the “common homeland”, enshrined in the experience of several centuries. The concept of “critical slavicism”, developed by T. G. Masaryk, included three main components: the rationale for a consistent transition from the all-Slavonic to the national identity among the peoples of the Habsburg monarchy; comprehension of the commonality of the small nations living on the territory of the Habsburg monarchy; liberal interpretation of the development of the Slavic idea in Russia. This triad became dominant in subsequent historical studies of Czechoslovak scholars in the interwar period. The approaches of K. Kramárz, A. Stefanek, Z. Nejedli and V. Zhachek, who belonged to different directions of Czechoslovak historiography, which in their works either developed Masaryk's ideas or oppose him, are also considered in the article. The article concludes that despite the difference in approaches, the concepts of the interwar period somehow or other were built around the problems that were posed in the works of T. G. Masaryk. The scientists tried to give their answers to them, depending on their professional experience and personal convictions. The discussion of the historical destinies of the Slavic idea was followed by sharp public discussions about the young Czechoslovak democracy, its attitude towards its past and the USSR.
CHANGES IN THE IMAGE OF THE YOUNG KLEMENT GOTTWALD AFTER 1948
Authors: Juraj Benko;
The article is devoted to the analysis of the image of Klement Gottwald during his activity in Slovakia, which was formed during the years of socialist dictatorship in Czechoslovakia (1948–1989). This part of Gottwald's life, representing a short and specific period at the very beginning of his political career, preceded his career growth in the structures of both the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia and the state power. The author focuses on two works devoted to the study of this period and appeared at two different stages of the socialist dictatorship: the historical monograph of Zdenka Holotíková, which was published in 1953, and the Slovak historical film “Mature Youth” (1983). In the period between the appearance of these two products, the state of historical knowledge has changed. In the 1960s, many interpretative dogmatic schemes disappeared from historiography, including the image of the young Gottwald, who lost his Promethean pathos. However, the subsequent normalization period reversed this process, which could not but be reflected in the figure of Gottwald, which again was turned into a stabilizing element of the regime. As a result, the canonical image of the young Gottwald in the two works mentioned, as in other works, did not undergo significant changes. The image has changed, more likely, in details, but they were mainly witnesses. The study shows how the changes in the political situation in Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union influenced the appearance or removal from the historical context of a particular figure. The presence or absence of historical figures – Gotwald's associates in the period of the formation of the communist movement in Slovakia in the 1920s. – in the official memory of the regime was to a lesser extent a reflection of historical reality, and more – a consequence of excommunication and rehabilitation within the communist movement.
SLOVAK CONTACTS OF ROMAN JAKOBSON
Authors: Marína Zavacká;
The study explores the complex history of the relations of the academic environment in Czechoslovakia with the famous Russian and American philologist and historian of literature R. O. Jakobson (1896–1982). The author concentrates on Jakobson’s academic and cultural relations in this country, tracing especially his ties to the Slovak academic and cultural community, which lasted for more than half of the 20th century. Based on an extensive analysis of archival documents as well as a wide range of published memoirs, the text presents the spectrum of his interests and circle of his acquaintances, developed during his stays in Prague, Brno and Bratislava, beginning with his first visit in 1920 to the last one in 1968. The article assesses Jacobsonʼs activities during the period of his emigration in the United States, where he cooperated with the Czechoslovak government in exile and contributed to the creation of the Masaryk chair of Czech studies at Columbia University. Unique archival materials, especially reports of continuous secret police surveillance of Jakobsonʼs participation and interaction at meetings of Slavists in Prague and Bratislava, help to shed light on contemporary routines of official academic visits. The study follows a circle of Slovak scientists with whom Jakobson maintained contacts and examines possible influence of a well-known linguist on Slovak students. The author analyses, in detail, political circumstances of Jacobson’s infrequent post-war visits to Slovakia. These circumstances crucially influenced the possibility and intensity of his contacts with the Slovak academic community. Particular attention is paid to the attempts of local academic community during the Khrushchev thaw in the late 1950s and in the 1960s to rehabilitate Jakobson, who had been repeatedly politically attacked as a “disgraced” scientist. The study offers details of his brief stay in Bratislava in August 1968, when he visited a number of scientific institutions and received the Gold Medal of the Slovak Academy of Sciences.
MODIFICATION OF THE SOCIALIST IDEA. ON THE 95TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE BIRTH OF ALEXANDER DUBČEK
Authors: Ella G. Zadorozhnyuk;
The article examines some milestones of the activity of the Czechoslovak statesman Alexander Dubcek in the foreshortening of his attitude to the socialist idea. The author focuses on Dubcek's views on the socialist idea both in general and in its modified form of “socialism with a human face.” The most important moments from the biography of the Czechoslovak president, which influenced the formation of his worldview, are presented. A. Dubcek was a consistent supporter of the idea of socialism in the second generation, his parents at one time found the roots of socialism in the US and the USSR. Chronologically, the analysis of the socialist idea of Dubcek is limited to the period before and after the “tender” / “velvet” revolution of 1989, as in the literature this topic was not given proper attention. Having assumed the leadership of the revived Social Democracy in Czechoslovakia after the November 1989 events, Dubcek took an active part in the revival of the Social Democratic movement in Slovakia. The Slovak Social Democrats considered economic reform unavoidable, however, some radical steps towards its implementation stipulated the adoption of measures of social policy. Some ideas of this program are reflected in one of the documents of the Gorbachev Foundation-Fund. The article introduces into the scientific circulation for the first time and analyzes a fragment of the document from this archive-a shorthand record of the official meeting of A. Dubcek with M. Gorbachev, which took place on May 21, 1990 in Moscow. It is concluded that Dubcek in his own way saved and saved the idea of socialism in conditions when this idea in European countries was relegated to the background, and this is the most important result of his life and destiny. The article is written for the 95th anniversary, and in the opinion of its author, there is every reason to assume that the full scope of A. Dubcek's personality and the results of his activities will be revealed by the year 2021, by his 100th anniversary.
LITERATURE AS A MIRROR OF HISTORY (THE THEME OF 1968 IN SLOVAK PROSE)
Authors: Liudmila F. Shirokova;
The reflection of the events of 1968 in the Slovak literature of the late XX-early XXI centuries is considered. The article shows the history of the appearance of this theme of the year on the pages of Slovak fiction: from the earliest responses relating to 1968–1969 years to the works of a later period, which were published only after 1989. Among them poems and publicistic speeches of writers are, which appeared in the Slovak and foreign press, in samizdat. At present, the 1968 theme is widely reflected in different genres of Slovak literature, first of all it is the memoirs of contemporaries and participants of events, as well as political thrillers and psychological novels. In these works there are episodes, motives, scenes of events of 1968, as well as memoirs of politicians. As a primary source of reliable information, the author of the article analyses the memoirs of A. Dubcek, "Hope dies last". The modification of the named theme in the novels of modern Slovak prose writers is shown. Among the closest to the documentary sources of works, according to the author of the article, books J. Banasa “Area of passion” (2008) and “Stop dubček!” (2009) are, written in genre of political thriller and fictionalized biography. These works touch on the problem of historical memory, oblivion or veneration of national heroes as an indicator of moral maturity and society, and a particular person. Analyzed voluminous, multi-page novels P. Rakova, V. Climatica and family Saga P. Kristufek “House of the deaf man” are (2012). The research carried out by the author of the article demonstrates how the Slovak literature preserved the experiences of contemporaries of the events of 1968, how truthfully it was depicted in spite of the artistic imagery authentic paintings of that era, as well as how the emphasis was placed in the reflection of the topic, depending on the realities of our time.
ON THE ACCESSION OF THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC (1939–1945) IN THE WAR AGAINST THE SOVIET UNION THROUGH THREE QUARTERS OF A CENTURY
Authors: Josef Bystriczki;
The article based on archival and published documents, examines the participation of Slovakia in the war against the Soviet Union in 1941–1945. The historical conditions and circumstances of the announcement of the Slovak Republic of the war the US and the UK are reviewed. The active role of the Slovak government in joining the Slovak army to the German attack on the USSR is shown. We criticize Slovak authors, who publish false facts, embellish the role and significance of the Slovak army, trying to “rewrite” history without evidence. In particular, the work of T. Kubert (2016), which distorted the historical circumstances of Slovakia's entry into the war, and the role of the Slovak government in making this decision, was criticized. The circumstances of the breakup of diplomatic relations between the Slovak Republic and the USSR, as well as the beginning of hostilities against the USSR on the side of Germany are considered in detail. Criticized the evaluation of the Slovak historian P. Mechanica is that he in the spirit of the official propaganda of the period beginning of the war without any critical relation to it explains the reasons for the Declaration of war with the Soviet Union, in particular speaking about the Christian world's struggle against Bolshevism and countering Soviet aggression in the Slovak lands. The article also criticizes the views of some “young” Slovak historians for their explanation of the reasons for Slovakia's joining the war against the Soviet Union. In particular, an occurring in modern historiography (M. Latsko) statement of the need for preventive military action is doubted, which could avert the threat of “Bolshevik conquest of Slovakia by the Soviet Union.” M. Lacko is known for works in which he appears as a defender of President Joseph Tisa and the Slovak state 1939–1945, and also expresses his negative attitude to the Slovak national uprising and the liberation mission of the red army. The author of the article supports all his assessments with references to historical sources, including low-availability archival materials.
EXCHANGE OF POPULATION OF THE USSR WITH POLAND AND CZECHOSLOVAKIA IN 1944–1947: ANALOGIES AND DIFFERENCES OF THE ERA OF POLITICAL MIGRATION OF PEOPLES
Authors: Michal Chmigel;
Migration processes in Central Europe in the postwar period including resettlement and relocation of the citizens sometimes called “great political relocation of nations” – were the consequences of the war, the Yalta and Postupim system and the power policy, but also an effort to create ethnically homogenous states – countries without minorities. In Central and Eastern Europe, the question concerning Poland came into the forefront during and increasingly towards the end of the World War II. The territorial changes in Poland were very extensive and in this context, the issue of resettlement of citizens from Poland to the Soviet Union and vice versa (based on the Agreements from 1944 and 1945) was the most critical one though it was carried out mainly in the postwar period. As in Poland, the so-called “option agreements” on the resettlement were also concluded between Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union during 1945 and 1946. Obvious analogies and some differences in these processes can be seen in the context of a new geopolitical situation in Central and Eastern Europe and how the national question in both countries was solved.
EXHIBITION “RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF USA” IN KAZAN, 1972, IN AMERICAN SOURCES
Authors: Aleksei E. Fominykh;
The exhibition "US Research and Development" (Research and Development - USA) was one of the landmark events of the short period of "detente" in Soviet-American relations. In Kazan, the capital of the Tatar ASSR, the exhibition was held for a month, from July 17 to August 17, 1972. This was the third point of the mobile exhibition: at the beginning of the year this exhibition opened in Tbilisi, then moved to Moscow (March 22 - April 18) and Volgograd (May 17 - June 17), and after Kazan was shown in Donetsk (September 14 - 15 October) and Leningrad (November 4 - December 13). It should be noted that the exhibition activity was a typical form of cultural diplomacy during the Cold War. The first exchange of national exhibitions between the USSR and the USA took place in 1959 - shortly after the signing of the Soviet-American agreement on cultural exchanges (the "Lacey-Zarubin agreement" of 1958): the Soviet exhibition was opened in New York, and the Americans held their national exhibition in Moscow's Sokolniki Park. Until the collapse of the USSR the US Information Agency (USIA), the main government institution responsible for the implementation of public and cultural diplomacy programs, conducted 19 thematic exhibitions in 25 cities in the Soviet Union. Soviet visitors were shown the industrial power of America, advanced scientific achievements and technical innovations, including domestic purposes, as well as cultural phenomena and works of art.
CITIZENS OF THE SOVIET UNION IN THE SLOVAK RESISTANCE MOVEMENT
Authors: Stanislav Michev;
The most numerous and, certainly, the most considerable part of the foreign citizens participating in the Slovak national revolt was made by representatives of various nationalities of the Soviet Union, including Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians, Georgians, Armenians, Tatars, Azerbaijanians, Kazakhs, etс. All authors investigating participation of foreigners in the Slovak resistance movement meet in his quantitative assessment ‒ 30 thousand persons. Participation of the Soviet people in the Slovak national revolt has been closely connected with political, military, financial and other aid of the USSR to the Slovak resistance movement in the years of World War II. Participation of citizens of the USSR was especially brightly shown at the organization of activity of the Slovak guerrilla movement in 1942–1945.
INTERNATIONAL SUMMER SCHOOL “1917: NEW VIEWS AND NEW APPROACHES” FOR YOUNG SCIENTISTS IN CIS, BALTIC AND EUROPE
Authors: Irina R. Chikalova;
Citation for an article: Chikalova I. R. International Summer school “1917: new views and new approaches” for young scientists in CIS, Baltic and Europe. West – East. 2017, no. 10, pp. 252253.
NEW RUSSIAN-SERBIAN YEARBOOK OF BALKAN HISTORY AND CULTURE
Authors: Irina Yu. Abramova; Julija S. Obidina;
Citation for an article: Abramova I. Yu., Obidina Yu. S. New Russian-Serbian Yearbook of Balkan history and culture. West – East. 2017, no. 10, pp. 254257.